base-oils-group1

Group 1 base oils are the least refined of all the groups. They are usually a mix of different hydrocarbon chains with little or no uniformity. While some automotive oils on the market continue to use Group I stocks, they are generally used in less demanding applications.

Modern mineral base oils are the result of a long and complex distillation and refining processes. The feedstock used is crude oil. This substance is not of uniform quality but consists of several thousands of hydrocarbon compounds in which the elements carbon and hydrogen are present in all molecules and, in part, are bound to other elements.

The hydrocarbons can be divided into three main groups: paraffinic, naphthenic and aromatic.

Paraffinic hydrocarbons can be further divided into two subgroups: normal paraffinic and isoparaffinic. Paraffinic hydrocarbons are the best lubricants. The distillation process in the refinery separates the hydrocarbons contained in the crude into cuts based on the molecule size.

Furthermore, as many unwanted substances as possible are removed in the process, such as sulphur, aromatic hydrocarbons, paraffin wax, etc. In other words the mineral oil production process is physical cleaning and the end product is so-called paraffinic base oil.

Most of the hydrocarbons in the base oil are paraffinic, but it also contains naphthenic and aromatic molecules. When the finished lubricant, such as motor oil, is made of these, several additive compounds are used to improve the base oil properties.

The final outcome can also be so-called naphthenic base oil, where most of the hydrocarbons are naphthenic.

Base Oil (SN600)

Test Unit Method Results
Kin Viscosity @ 100 C Cst ASTM D-445 12.45
Kin Viscosity @ 40 C Cst ASTM D-445 123.21
Viscosity Index ASTM D-2270 90.9
Density @ 15 C Gr/ Cm3 ASTM D-1298 0.8913
Tan Mg koh/Gr ASTM D-664 0.04
Pour Point C ASTM D-97 Min-6
Flash Point C ASTM D-92 Max 268
Color ASTM D-1500 1.6
Water Content Ppm ASTM D-1364 17

Base Oil (SN150)

Parameters Test Methods Unit Results
Density @ 15 C ASTM D 1298 Kg/m 0.8795
Flash Point ASTM D 92 C 220
Pour Point ASTM D 97 C -3 Max
Viscosity Kinematic @ 40 C ASTM D 445 cSt 3.391
Viscosity Kinematic @ 100 C ASTM D 445 cSt 5.389
Viscosity Index ASTM D 2270 92
Color ASTM D 1500 Below 2
Water Content ASTM D 6304 ppm 35
base-oils-group1

Base oils made by hydrocracking and isomerization technologies had such a signifigant increase in desirable performance over solvent refining technology that in 1993 the API categorized base oils by composition. Solvent refined oils are now referred to as group I base oils.

Group Il Turkmenistan base oils are a vast improvement over group I because they contain lower levels of impurities and because they are so pure, they have almost no color at all.

Improved purity means the base oil and additives can last longer under use. The oil is more inert and forms less oxidation byproducts that can increase viscosity and react with additives.

Group II Base Oils over Group I Base Oils offer;

* Better Thermal stability

* Better Oxidation stability

* Longer service life

* Increased component protection

* Better resistance to the formation of Laquers and Sludge

Base Oil (SN350)

Description of index Base oil (SN350) Results
Density at, 20 C, g/cm3, not more than 890
Refraction coefficient at 20 C
Kinematic Viscosity at 100 C, cSt 8.0 – 9.5
Pour Point, C, not higher than -12
Flash Point, C, not less than 220
Viscosity index, min 95
Color

  • by LIHT, max
  • by ASTM, max
  • by conditional units of KHC, mac
 

  • 1.0
  • 1.0
Mass portion of sulfur, %, max 0.03
Acidity number, mg KOH by1g oil, min 0.05
Ash, %, max 0.005
Mass portion of mechanical impurities, %, max 0.005

Base Oil (SN180)

Base oil (SN180) Unit Method Results
Kin Viscosity @ 100 C Cst ASTM D-445 5.67
Kin Viscosity @ 40 C Cst ASTM D-445 35.004
Viscosity Index ASTM D-2270 100.0
Density @ 15 C Gr/Cm3 ASTM D-4052 0.8679
Tan Mg Koh/Gr ASTM D-664 0.03
Pour Point C ASTM D-97 -12
Flash Point C ASTM D-92 230
Color ASTM D-1500 0.5
Water Content Ppm ASTM D-1364 32
base-oils-group1

The API defines the difference between Group II and III base oils only in terms of V.I., viscosity index. Base oils with conventional V.I. (80-119) are Group II and base oils with an “unconventional” V.I. (120+) are Group III. Group III base oils are also called unconventional base oils (UCBO’s) or very high V.I. (VHVI) base oils. Group II+ base oils have the same maximum V.I. as Group II (80-119), but have a higher minimum V.I. (110-119).

From a process standpoint, Group III oils are made by the same process as Group II oils, but the V.I. is increased by increasing the temperature of the hydrocracker. The product V.I. can also be increased by increasing the V.I. of the feedstock.Which is done by selecting the appropriate crude.

Base Oil Group ||| Specifications 4CST

Physical Characteristics Method Results
Kinematic Viscosity @ 100 C ASTM D-445 4.29
Kinematic Viscosity @ 40 C ASTM D-445 19.96
Viscosity Index ASTM D-2270 123
Sulfur wt ppm ASTM D-5453 <1.0
Flash point C ASTM D-92 220
Color ASTM D-1500 0.0
Density @ 15 CKg/L ASTM D-1298 0.8352
Pour Point ASTM D-97 -15
Appearance Visual B & C

Base Oil Group ||| Specifications 6CST

Physical Characteristics Method Results
Kinematic Viscosity @ 100 C ASTM D-445 6.36
Kinematic Viscosity @ 40 C ASTM D-445 35.62
Viscosity Index ASTM D-2270 130
Sulfur wt ppm ASTM D-5453 <1.0
Flash point C ASTM D-92 234
Color ASTM D-1500 0.0
Density @ 15 CKg/L ASTM D-1298 0.8423
Pour Point ASTM D-97 -15
Appearance Visual B & C

Base Oil Group ||| Specifications 8CST

Physical Characteristics Method Results
Kinematic Viscosity @ 100 C ASTM D-445 7.32
Kinematic Viscosity @ 40 C ASTM D-445 44.47
Viscosity Index ASTM D-2270 128
Sulfur wt ppm ASTM D-5453 0.0035
Flash point C ASTM D-92 252
Color ASTM D-1500 0.0
Density @ 15 CKg/L ASTM D-1298 0.8452
Pour Point ASTM D-97 -12
Appearance Visual B & C
base-oils-group1

“The word “synthetic” in the lube industry hase traditionaly been synonymous with PAO, poly-alpha-olefins, which are made from small molecules. The first commercial process for making PAO was pioneered by Gulf Oil in 1951.

Since then, the demand for PAO has grown and some base oil manufactures began using higher V.I. feedstocks to make mineral oils with V.I.’s that matched the PAO’s. These new Group Ill oils were not manufactured from small molecules like traditional synthetics but they bridged the performance gap at a lower cost. Some lubricant manufactures began replacing PAO’s with Group III base oils in their “synthetic” engine oils. This created a controversy in the lubricants industry because some believed that PAO’s were the only true synthetics.

The National Advertising Department of the Better Business Bureau ruled that Group III base oils can be considered “synthetic” because modern oils made using hydroisomerization technology have most of the same performance features of the early synthetics.

Base Oil Group IV PAO-4 cSt

Test Method Unit Result
Color ASTM ASTM D-1500 L0.5
Density at 15 C ASTM D-4052 Kg/l 0.8189
Viscosity at 100 C ASTM D-445 mm/s 4.06
Viscosity at 40 C ASTM D-445 mm/s 17.510
Viscosity Index ASTM D-2270 135
Flash Point COC ASTM D-92 Deg C 167
Pour Point ASTM D-97 Deg C -57
Water by KF-conulometric ASTM D-6304 mg/kg 7
Appearance Visual Clear & bright
Noack Volatility ASTM D-5800-B %m/m 5
Total Acid Number ASTM D-974 mg KOG/g <0.01
Bromine Number ASTM D-D1159 g Br2/100g 0.5

Base Oil Group IV PAO-6 cSt

Property Typical Value
Kinematic Viscosity, cSt @ 212 F, 100 C 5.8
Kinematic Viscosity, cSt @ 104 F, 40 C 30.5
Kinematic Viscosity, cSt @ -40 F, 40 C 7.749
Viscosity Index 138
Pour Point F, C -78(-61)
F C 475(246)
Fire Point(COC) F C 527(275)
Volatility, Noack, wt% 6.3
Specific Gravity 60/60 F, 15.6/15.6C 0.8278
Density, ib/gal 6.893
Total Acid Number <0.03
Bromine Index <200
Oder No Foregin Oder
Appearance Clear & Bright
Color, Pt-Co .

Base Oil Group IV PAO-8 cSt

Property Typical Value
Kinematic Viscosity, cSt @ 212 F, 100 C 7.9
Kinematic Viscosity, cSt @ 104 F, 40 C 46.8
Kinematic Viscosity, cSt @ -40 F, 40 C 19.877
Viscosity Index 137
Pour Point F, C -67(-55)
nt (COC) F C 502(261)
Fire Point(COC) F C 561(294)
Volatility, Noack, wt% 3.1
Specific Gravity 60/60 F, 15.6/15.6C 0.8326
Density, ib/gal 6.933
Total Acid Number <0.03
Bromine Index <200
Oder No Foregin Oder
Appearance Clear & Bright
Color, Pt-Co 0
base-oils-group1

are used primarily in the creation of oil additives.

Esters and polyolesters are both common Group V base oils used in the formulation of oil additives.

Group V oils are generally not used as base oils themselves, but add beneficial properties to other base oils.

Note that the additives referred to in the Group V description are not aftermarket type oil additives. The additives referred to are used in the chemical engineering and blending of motor oils and other lubricating oils by the specific oil company that produces the finished product.

Base Oil Group V NH140

Test Method Unit Result
Kinematic Viscosity 100 C ASTM D-445 cSt 9.64
Kinematic Viscosity 40 C ASTM D-445 cSt 145.65
Viscosity Index ASTM D-2270 -10
Sulphur Content ASTM D-4294 %mass 0.013
Flash Point ASTM D-92 C 206
Color ASTM D-1500 L1.5
Density @ 15 C ASTM D-1298 Kg/L 0.9259
Water Content ASTM D-6304 ppm 27
Pour Point F, C ASTM D-97 C -12

Base Oil Group V NH20

Test Method Unit Result
Kinematic Viscosity 100 C ASTM D-445 cSt 3.73
Kinematic Viscosity 40 C ASTM D-445 cSt 21.28
Viscosity Index ASTM D-2270 22
Sulphur Content ASTM D-4294 %mass 0.0035
Flash Point ASTM D-92 C 154
Color ASTM D-1500 L0.5
Density @ 15 C ASTM D-1298 Kg/L 0.9014
Water Content ASTM D-6304 ppm 36
Pour Point F, C ASTM D-97 C <-30